The good causes, which will benefit from "a variety of activity" over the coming months, were chosen by the ITV1 serial's cast members in a democratic ballot.
Cancer Research UK and the NSPCC were two national charities picked in the vote, while local choices were Oldham cancer centre The Christie and mental health organisation Mood Swings, which was set up by the father of Weatherfield actress Jennie McAlpine (Fiz Stape).
Speaking of the Corrie team's plans, executive producer Kieran Roberts commented: "We're delighted that support for local and UK-wide charities will form an important part of our anniversary commemorations, enabling us to use the programme's profile to provide real support for good causes in Manchester and beyond."
The first fundraising event will be an auction of the special 'three flying ducks' brooch which was created for The Duchess of Cornwall for her visit to the programme's set last month.
GMTV, This Morning and Granada Reports have also promised to work closely with the four charities for the rest of the year.
Earlier today, Coronation Street unveiled its official 50th anniversary logos ahead of its on-screen celebrations later this year. Get the Inside Soap magazine on your iPhone or iPad