Constable, the former strategy director at Channel 5, will officially join Arqiva on June 6, assuming responsibility for the firm's Freeview multiplex business and stake in IPTV joint venture YouView.
Reporting directly to Arqiva chief executive John Cresswell, he will also be tasked with securing Arqiva's future in the emerging connected-TV space.
Constable was among several senior Channel 5 executive directors to leave the broadcaster last year as part of new owner Richard Desmond's major overhaul of the business.
"We are delighted to welcome Charles to Arqiva at this significant point in the development of the business," said Cresswell, who became Arqiva's new chief executive in January.
"Driven by wider consumer choice and new delivery platforms, the broadcast industry is undergoing a profound transformation. Arqiva has a significant role to play in this transformation and the growth potential it presents is enormous. The time is right to realign the business and strengthen the executive management team to help us shape and realise these opportunities."
Constable added: "I am joining Arqiva at a very exciting time. With the launch of Freeview HD and continuing progress with digital switchover, the Freeview platform continues to go from strength to strength.
"The launch of YouView and the prospect of additional spectrum for new multiplexes also present significant opportunities to further strengthen and develop the platform. Arqiva has an important role to play in shaping the future of broadcast services in the UK and I will ensure that we deliver on these developments for our customers."
Under a management restructure at Arqiva, Steve Holebrook - previously managing director for terrestrial broadcasting - will become managing director of the broadcast & media business.
Holebrook will oversee Arqiva's satellite, terrestrial TV and radio transmission operations, including the delivery of the UK's £700m digital switchover project.
Last week, the Digital TV Group published the seventh edition of its 'D-Book' specification, focused on the growing convergence of broadcast and broadband services and devices.