Ohga, who led the company from 1982 to 1995, died of multiple organ failure on Saturday in Tokyo, Sony said in a statement. He was still a senior adviser to the company at the time of his death.
Sir Howard Stringer, chairman, chief executive and president of Sony Corporation, said that Ohga's "foresight and vision" helped transform Sony into a global entertainment leader.
Ohga first met Sony founders Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita in 1953 when he was studying music at the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, now Tokyo University of the Arts.
In the 1970s, he became the president of CBS Sony Records, now Sony Music Entertainment, during which time he personally drove forward Sony's involvement in the emerging compact disc format.
During the development, Ohga famously stipulated that the CD should be 12cm (4.8in) in diameter, because that provided a 75-minute capacity to store Beethoven's Ninth Symphony without interruption.
Sony sold the world's first CD in 1982 and the product took just five years to eclipse LP records as the dominant music format. Ohga's CD format helped the launch of other optical disc products, including the MiniDisc, CD-ROMs and the DVD.
Ohga also presided over the launch of Sony's video game business, which went on to develop the hugely successful PlayStation console. He even designed the Sony logo, always stressing that "the four letters of the 'SONY' brand are our greatest asset".
However, not all of his initiatives at Sony were so successful. His $3.4bn purchase of Hollywood studio Columbia Pictures in 1989 was criticised at the time as unwise and costly.
Sony's Betamax video form, developed under Ohga's reign, also lost out in a fierce battle with rival format VHS, which went on to become the world standard.
Despite the few misses, Ohga was widely credited with defining Sony's products and brand image to help build a massive and highly lucrative global consumer base.
Commenting on his passing, Sir Howard Stringer said: "Witnessing Ohga-san's leadership firsthand was truly an honour, and one I continued to enjoy and benefit from in countless ways in the years that followed.
"By redefining Sony as a company encompassing both hardware and software, Ohga-san succeeded where other Japanese companies failed. It is no exaggeration to attribute Sony's evolution beyond audio and video products into music, movies and game, and subsequent transformation into a global entertainment leader to Ohga-san's foresight and vision. I offer my deepest condolences on his passing and pray that he may rest in peace."
Ohga stepped down as Sony's president in 1995, but continued to serve as chairman until 2000. He was also the chairman of the Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra.