Mobile devices are now permitted inside the House of Commons as long as they are put on silent mode and used with "decorum". Laptops remain banned in the chamber.
The move enables MPs to tweet to their followers during proceedings, which many politicians have insisted will help them communicate better with the public.
However, other MPs feel that being able to use Twitter and electronic devices will prove distracting.
The Commons Procedure Committee also said that MPs will be able to refer to mobile devices for notes and research while giving speeches.
In January, a statement made by a deputy Commons Speaker told MPs that they were not allowed to use Twitter inside the chamber.
After criticism of the proposed move, MPs have today voted by 206 votes to 63 against an amendment that would have formally imposed the ban.
Labour's Luciana Berger had argued that only two countries in Europe currently banned MPs from tweeting during proceedings, and urged the UK not to follow suit.
She said that Twitter was a good way for MPs to "reach out to a wider audience", and a ban on the microblogging site would be "bemusing" to the public.
However, deputy Lib Dem leader Simon Hughes attempted to argue that use of electronic devices could make MPs appear "disconnected" from the debate.
"It looks pretty bad if people spend their time in a debate looking at papers that aren't anything to do with it. I think it looks even less connected with the debate if people spend all their time playing around with bits of electronic machinery," he said.
"If we're here we should be taking part in the debate...the administration of our lives should happen outside here, not in here."
But the Commons Procedure Committee said that allowing MPs to use electronic devices while waiting to speak or listening to the discussion could boost attendance of proceedings.
The committee has also recommended that MPs should be able to use laptops in committee meetings, including select committee hearings.
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