The late Apple co-founder told author Walter Isaacson that he was willing to spend all of the firm's money and his "last dying breath" taking down the Google platform, The AP reports.
Jobs perceived Android's similarity to Apple's iOS operating system as "grand theft". Prior to the release of the Google operating system, the companies worked closely together.
The search engine giant's services featured prominently on early iPhone devices and Google's Eric Schmidt sat on the Apple board. He resigned from the post in August 2009.
"I'm going to destroy Android, because it's a stolen product. I'm willing to go thermonuclear war on this," said Jobs. "I will spend my last dying breath if I need to, and I will spend every penny of Apple's $40 billion in the bank to right this wrong."
Apple is currently suing several smartphone companies who use the Android OS, including Motorola and Samsung. The firm is locked in an ongoing legal battle with the latter which has now spanned 20 cases in 10 countries.
Android accounts for 48% of global smartphone shipments, compared to Apple's 19%.
Steve Jobs coverage round-up:
> Steve Jobs rallied against Apple legacy, says Al Gore
> Steve Jobs 1955-2011: The Apple CEO throughout the years - Video
> Steve Jobs 1955-2011: Reactions
> Steve Jobs 1955-2011: Obituary
> Steve Jobs: Apple's leader in his own words
> Steve Jobs Pixar tribute: "An extraordinary visionary, a dear friend"
> Steve Jobs 1955-2011: Apple co-founder's biggest moments in pictures
> Steve Jobs 1955-2011: Apple pays tribute to its co-founder - pictures
> Steve Jobs: Can Apple survive without its leader?
> Steve Jobs: Memorial for Apple leader attended by Silicon Valley elite