The lawsuit, filed in the state of Delaware in the US, relates to six patents which BT says are infringed by Google Android services, including Google Maps, location-based advertising, Google Music and other products in the Android Marketplace.
If BT proves successful with its action, Google and its handset partners may have to pay royalties to the UK teleco for every smartphone they produce, according to Florian Mueller's wireless intellectual property news blog Foss Patents.
Android is currently the most successful smartphone platform in the world, with handsets running the operating system making up more than 40% of global sales. Google recently announced that 500,000 Android devices are activated every day.
Mueller said that BT is seeking "triple damages" in certain cases for what it claims is "wilful and deliberate infringement", along with an injunction.
"BT brings this action to recover the just compensation it is owed and to prevent Google from continuing to benefit from BT's inventions without authorisation," said BT in its lawsuit, which was filed last Thursday.
It is unclear whether BT has also brought its litigation to Europe over local equivalent use of the patents.
BT launches its action at a time when Google is trying to push through its acquisition of smartphone maker Motorola Mobility, which has already been delayed after European Union regulators asked for more information from the search giant.
Mueller noted that Google is also fending off lawsuits from various other major companies over alleged patent infringement, including Apple, Oracle, Microsoft, Samsung, HTC, eBay and digital security firm Gemalto.
"Android already had more than enough intellectual problems anyway. Now Google faces one more large organisation that believes its rights are infringed," said Mueller.
"BT probably wants to continue to be able to do business with all mobile device makers and therefore decided to sue Google itself."
> Google awarded driverless car patent in the US