Brin, who founded Google with Larry Page, said that the openness of the web as an information source is disappearing because of heavy censorship in countries such as China, along with the 'closed platforms' being created by some corporate companies.
In an interview with The Guardian, he said that the principles of openness and universal access had underpinned the creation of the internet three decades ago, but are now under greater threat than ever.
The 38-year-old billionaire, who was thought to have been a key figure in Google's partial withdrawal from China due to concerns over censorship and cyber attack, said: "I thought there was no way to put the genie back in the bottle, but now it seems in certain areas the genie has been put back in the bottle."
Brin said that alongside government efforts to control access, problems were also coming from the entertainment industry attempting to crack down on piracy.
He warned the movie studios, music labels and TV networks that they were in danger of 'shooting themselves in the foot' by lobbying governments to block websites offering pirate material.
The entertainment industries should instead focus on providing easy and legal ways for people to obtain content that offers a better experience than pirate websites, he said.
In the interview for The Guardian's Battle for the Internet event, Brin also said that Google would not have been formed if the web had been dominated by "restrictive" companies such as Facebook and Apple, which tightly control access to their services.
The comments come ahead of an estimated $100bn (£64bn) flotation for Facebook, the social network that has signed up half of Americans with computer access and more than 800m members around the world.
Mark Zuckerberg's company has recently been launching more services designed to keep people on the site for longer and longer, but Brin feels that this could limit innovation.
"You have to play by their rules, which are really restrictive," he said.
"The kind of environment that we developed Google in, the reason that we were able to develop a search engine, is the web was so open. Once you get too many rules, that will stifle innovation."
He accused Facebook of not making it easy for users to switch their data to other services, adding: "Facebook has been sucking down Gmail contacts for many years."
Brin acknowledged that some people were concerned over the amount of their personal data that was held on Google's servers, much of it potentially in the reach of authorities.
He said that the company often turns down requests to access the data, but in some cases has to hand over the material and is restricted from informing the user it has done so.
"We push back a lot; we are able to turn down a lot of these requests. We do everything possible to protect the data. If we could wave a magic wand and not be subject to US law, that would be great," he said.
"If we could be in some magical jurisdiction that everyone in the world trusted, that would be great...We're doing it as well as can be done."
Google was recently criticised by the UK government for failing to quickly take down material on the web that infringes personal privacy after receiving a court order. This followed a high-profile case involving ex-motorsport boss Max Mosley.
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