The initiative has been launched to spark an interest in computer programming among children and identify youngsters who have an aptitude for it early.
Raspberry Pi Foundation founder Eben Upton and Google executive Eric Schmidt visited Chesterton Community College in Cambridge to teach students computer programming and promote the initiative.
"We hope that our new partnership with Google will be a significant moment in the development of computing education in the UK," said Upton.
"We believe that this can turn around the year-on-year decline in the numbers and skill sets of students applying to read Computer Science at university."
Schmidt added: "Britain's innovators and entrepreneurs have changed the world - the telephone, television and computers were all invented here.
"We've been working to encourage the next generation of computer scientists and we hope this donation of Raspberry Pi's to British school pupils will help drive a new wave of innovation."
To ensure the computers are put to good use, the two companies have partnered with six education bodies - Code Club, Computing at Schools, Generating Genius, CoderDojo, Teach First and OCR - to distribute to children who show an interest in the scheme.
OCR will separately be resourcing 15,000 free teaching and learning packs to accompany the Raspberry Pi's.
Raspberry Pi, a low-cost device that runs the Linux OS and comes uncased without keyboard or monitor, launched in the UK early last year.
Google is funding the venture via its Google Giving charity.