The Daybreak host will take charge of That Sunday Night Show and a panel of guests which includes Frank Skinner, John Prescott, Catherine Tate and Louis Walsh.
The eight-part series of 30-minute episodes will be made by Harry Hill's TV Burp producer Avalon Television and is likely to air in the 10pm slot.
Exact details have yet to be confirmed but it is thought that the show will begin early next year.
Other guests slated to feature are Alastair Campbell, Al Murray, Shaun Ryder and Margaret Mountford.
Elaine Bedell, ITV's director of comedy and entertainment, said: "That Sunday Night Show promises to be the perfect roundup of the week as Adrian and his guests cast a wry eye over the past seven days' events and the week ahead."
The project will be Chiles's first outside of the breakfast show and his presenting duties for the network's football coverage.