Peep Show duo David Mitchell and Robert Webb will also appear in the four-part Dickensian comedy adventure.
The Bleak Old Shop of Stuff will begin with a one-hour Christmas special before three 30-minute episodes air in early 2012.
Produced by That Mitchell and Webb Look's Gareth Edwards, the festive episode will see Fry play an evil lawyer called Malifax Skulkingworm and Webb in the role of Jedrington.
Meanwhile, Katherine Parkinson of The IT Crowd plays Jedrington's wife Conceptiva.
Fresh Meat actor Webb joked: "I'm really looking forward to working with my all time hero David Mitchell. Apparently Stephen Fry is in it too, which is nice."
BBC head of in-house comedy Mark Freeland said: "Mark Evans's already well-loved Victorian comic world is a wonderful way to celebrate the bicentenary of Dickens' birth. He probably wouldn't have agreed, but I am very excited."