Other panellists for the show, which will be filmed in Derby and hosted by David Dimbleby, include former Home Secretary Alan Johnson, Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed Davey and journalist Dominic Lawson.
The full lineup was confirmed today on the official BBC Question Time Twitter account.
Other musicians who have appeared on Question Time have included Jarvis Cocker, Will Young, Alex James and Paul Heaton.
Lydon this year released This Is PiL, his first Public Image Ltd album in two decades.
He recently said that he had no interest in writing new Sex Pistols songs, describing the occasional reunion gigs as "re-enactments".
Watch the Public Image Ltd 'One Drop' music video below: