The one-off Channel 4 film, provisionally titled Attenborough and Björk: The Nature of Music, will examine how music has developed and the effect technology may have on its future.
The broadcaster will discuss his own passion for music and introduce footage of the lyre bird, reed warbler and blue whale to illustrate the relationship between music and the natural world.
Meanwhile, Björk will demonstrate a range of bespoke instruments she commissioned for her latest album Biophilia.
The 2011 record was part of a multimedia project by the Icelandic star, which brings together the album with a range of apps and installations.
The Nature of Music's executive producer Lucas Ochoa said: "Pulse Films are incredibly excited to be working on this remarkable film with Björk and Sir David Attenborough.
"Born from Björk's revolutionary music project, it is thrilling to be able to document this incredible journey with her.
"She is undeniably one of the most iconic figures in popular culture and truly pushes boundaries like no other artist."
Watch the Björk Biophilia full app suite trailer below: