Fiona Seres (The Silence) has adapted Ethel Lina White's novel The Wheel Spins, previously adapted as 1938 film The Lady Vanishes by Alfred Hitchcock.
The book tells the story of Iris Carr, a young socialite who encounters the bookish but spirited Miss Froy on a train. However, when she wakes after falling asleep, Iris discovers that her new friend has vanished and is stunned when her fellow passengers deny that Froy ever existed.
The 90-minute BBC adaptation will star Selina Cadell (Doc Martin) as Miss Froy, with Tuppence Middleton (Spies of Warsaw) as Iris and Tom Hughes (Silk) as traveller Max Hare.
"I am very excited to have such a brilliant cast for The Lady Vanishes - not just the key characters played by Tuppence Middleton and Tom Hughes, but also a dynamic supporting cast that includes Danish actors Benedikte Hansen and Jesper Christensen," said writer Seres.
Kate Harwood, the BBC's head of series and serials, added: "Fiona's adaptation of The Wheel Spins deftly weaves together the intriguing stories of a psychologically complex group of characters - with the mysterious disappearance of Miss Froy on a packed train - played out against the tense backdrop of the Balkans in the 1930s."
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Gemma Jones (Spooks) has been cast as Rose Flood-Porter, while Stephanie Cole (Coronation Street) is Evelyn Flood-Porter.
Keeley Hawes (Upstairs Downstairs) will play Mrs Todhunter and Julian Rhind-Tutt (The Hour) is Mr Todhunter.
Alex Jennings (Whitechapel), Sandy McDade (Lark Rise To Candleford), Pip Torrens (Pride and Prejudice) Emerald Fennell (Any Human Heart), Charles Aitken (Bonkers) and Daisy Lewis (Doctor Who) will also star in The Lady Vanishes - which begins shooting in Budapest this month.
"I am delighted with the incredible cast and crew we have assembled for the project," Harwood added. "The Lady Vanishes will be a thrilling treat for BBC One audiences this Christmas."