The stand-up comedian will appear in Father Figure - a new comedy series for 2013.
Byrne will play Tom, a married father with two sons who finds his efforts to be the perfect father thwarted by both bad luck and the antics of his extended family.
The series will be made in house by BBC Production, with Julia McKenzie as producer and Stephen McCrum as executive producer.
Irish comic Byrne's past acting work includes a role in 2011 film Killing Bono and an appearance in an episode of Father Ted.
"With the lineup of comic talent appearing on and writing for the channel in 2013, this will be a big year for comedy on BBC One," said BBC One controller Danny Cohen.
The announcement of Father Figure comes alongside three drama commissions for BBC One, including a Cold War spy thriller from Being Human creator Toby Whithouse and magical fantasy Jonathan Strange And Mr Norrell based on the novel by Susanna Clarke.
Earlier this month, BBC One announced five more new drama series, including legal drama The Escape Artist from Spooks creator David Wolstencroft and murder thriller Happy Valley by Scott & Bailey's Sally Wainwright.
> Edinburgh TV Festival: Danny Cohen on the future of BBC One