Critics voted the BBC three-part drama the number one production of the year, having aired in early January.
Sherlock was also the top TV show of 2012 as chosen by Digital Spy's Tube Talk team.
Homeland and Olympic-themed comedy Twenty Twelve finished in second and third place respectively in the Radio Times poll.
The Thick of It and student comedy Fresh Meat completed the top five, as chosen by the writing teams at Radio Times.
"Sherlock delivered the TV event of the year with three perfect episodes," said editor Tim Glanfield.
Copyright: BBC Hartswood"Nothing got people talking more than that cliffhanger series finale - and that was as true here at Radio Times as it was in offices and school playgrounds around the country.
Glanfield added: "Despite being shown 11 months ago, Sherlock won the vote quite easily. Virtually all of us had it in our personal top fives. It was simply staggeringly good TV - and best of all, it's British!"
Borgen, The Great British Bake Off, Downton Abbey, The Bridge and Girls also featured in the top ten.
The full top 40 list - which also included the likes of Doctor Who and Call the Midwife - can be seen here.
Watch the trailer for Sherlock episode 'The Reichenbach Fall' below: