The former Friends actor was recognised for playing a fictionalised version of himself on Showtime and BBC Two series Episodes.
He took home the award for 'Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series - Comedy or Musical' for the role.
"I thought, 'Did I just hear that right?'," he told People. "I didn't see it coming at all."
He joked that it was his "lucky" tuxedo that helped him win the prize, saying: "This is the winning tuxedo. This is the lucky one."
He added that he planned to celebrate by "running in [the party] and have a couple of cocktails".
The 2012 Golden Globes were hosted by Ricky Gervais at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in California.
> Homeland tops 2012 Golden Globes TV winners
> Golden Globes 2012: TV winners in full
Watch a clip of Matt LeBlanc in Episodes below: