The former Two and a Half Men star will play a frustrated therapist in the project, which is loosely based on the 2003 Adam Sandler film.
"I'm excited to be in a work environment that's a playground for the imagination and not a f**king... quagmire of oppression," Sheen told Variety.
Lionsgate TV will produce the new comedy, which has been picked up for ten episodes.
"Regardless of what you think of what happened, [Charlie Sheen] made hundreds of episodes of television," said Lionsgate's Jim Packer.
"We trust he can deliver a show. Assuming he doesn't have his problems, he can deliver a hundred episodes."
Sheen recently suggested that Anger Management will deal with "more mature themes" than Two and a Half Men.
Showrunner Bruce Helford has also described the series as a "smarter" comedy, calling Sheen "a strong actor".
"[Charlie] hasn't had an opportunity to tap into that in a while," he said in October. "But he is capable of playing much more complicated characters."
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