The actor will join his son in the FX comedy as a new regular, but only if the series gets its full order of 90 episodes.
"[Martin's casting will] give an extra dimension to the show and make it a multi-generational family show," FX president John Landgraf said, according to TV Line.
"The show will still deal with his relationship with his patients and the women in his life."
He added that Anger Management "has more growth in it creatively" and insisted that it is "very likely" the show will score a 90-episode order.
Anger Management, in which Charlie Sheen plays Charlie Goodson, debuted to record-breaking ratings, but viewing figures have since cooled.
It will be shown on Comedy Central in the UK from the autumn.