Wise - known for his roles on Twin Peaks and Reaper - will play a corrupt surgeon who operates on people against their will, TVLine reports.
The 64-year-old actor will appear in the fourth episode of the CBS drama's eighth season, which launches in the US on September 26.
His previous TV credits include roles on Mad Men, Chuck and How I Met Your Mother, while 2011's X-Men: First Class and 2005's Good Night, and Good Luck number among his film appearances.
The new season of Criminal Minds will see Jeanne Tripplehorn (Big Love) join the show as a new series regular, replacing the departing Paget Brewster (Emily Prentiss).
The 49-year-old Tripplehorn will play FBI linguistics expert Alex Blake, who has a past connection with Reid (Matthew Gray Gubler).
Criminal Minds airs on CBS in the US and on Sky Living in the UK.
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Watch Digital Spy's recent interview with Criminal Minds star Kirsten Vangsness: