The series - which featured performing monkey Crystal - was recently axed by the network and will be replaced by new episodes of Whitney.
"The cancellation of Animal Practice sends the strong message that using animals for cheap laughs on TV shows is archaic and uninteresting to today's viewers, who are sophisticated enough to know that not only is putting a monkey in a lab coat not funny, it's also cruel," PETA said in a statement.
"PETA's staff are celebrating today in response to news that [this series] has been cancelled."
The animal rights campaign group previously urged its supporters to protest against Animal Practice outside NBC Studios in North Hollywood.
In a post on its official Facebook page, PETA claimed that animals were being "exploited" by NBC.
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Watch a promo for Animal Practice below: