The new drama will be directed by Prometheus and Blade Runner helmer Ridley Scott for Sony Television.
The Vatican is set to go behind the scenes of the Catholic Church, exploring relationships and the inner workings of the religious organisation.
Variety reports that the script for the series will be written by Paul Attanasio (House, Donnie Brasco).
Attanasio will also serve as an executive producer on the one-hour thriller alongside Scott and David Zucker.
Aside from ordering The Vatican, Showtime has also added Masters of Sex and Ray Donovan to its 2013 slate.