Michael Bay is executive producing the TNT project, which is based on William Brinkley's 1988 post-apocalyptic novel of the same name.
The project was given a pilot episode order by TNT back in July.
Last Ship follows the crew of a naval destroyer who could be the only survivors on the planet after a nuclear war breaks out.
Former Grey's Anatomy actor Dane will play Captain Tom Chandler, who is described as "a career Navy man and a loving father and husband who's never home as much as he'd like to be. Chandler is authoritative, decisive, fair, courageous and a born leader, respected and loved by men and women in his command".
The pilot is written by Hank Steinberg (Without a Trace) and Steven Kane (The Closer), and will be directed by Jonathan Mostow (U-571).
Cast members will also include Michaela McManus, Charles Parnell, Travis Van Winkle, Christina Elmore and Sam Spruell.
Eric Dane left Grey's Anatomy as Dr Mark Sloan after six seasons on ABC at the beginning of its current ninth season.